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【正文】 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n Value increases as the square of connections Profit Loss Value Cost 0 2v 6v 12v 20v 30v 42v 56v 72v 90v n(n1)v F+0 F+ 2c F+ 3c F+ 4c F+ 5c F+ 6c F+ 7c F+ 8c F+ 9c F+ 10c F+ nc Value, cost Connections Cost increases linearly with connections … lower storage costs ... $/MB Average HD size in PC at retail (GB) Harddrive size (GB) Cost ($/MB) 0 . 0 00 . 2 00 . 4 00 . 6 00 . 8 01 . 0 01995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2023 2023 2023 202302550751007 RealTech ConfPSJune01torlm LONG DISTANCE Wholesale (Network) ? Design/build ? Operations/maintenance ? Resale/interconnection Retail ? Sales/marketing ? Account management ? Billing Retail ? Sales/marketing ? Account management ? Billing Network ? Design/build ? Operations/maintenance ? Resale/interconnection Retail Retail ? Network intelligence ? Value added services Wholesale service creation ? Network intelligence ? Value added services Network management/dispatch Wholesale PHARMACEUTICALS Research Development Trials Registration Manufac turing Sales marketing Increased development costs Role of blockbusters increasing Quality outsourcers available Easier coordination 1980s 1990s Research Development Trials Registration Manufac turing Sales marketing Academic labs Biotech firms Contract research anizations Contract mfrs PBMs JVs/ licensing ELECTRIC UTILITIES COMPUTER INDUSTRY ATT, MCI and Sprint … fragmented radically Microprocessors, integrated circuits, memory chips Computers Operating systems Applications software Marketing, sales, and distribution Common standards Time based petition 1995 Intel Motorola AMD Cyrix Compaq Dell Apple Packard Bell IBM DOS and Windows UNIX Mac OS OS/2 Microsoft Office WordPerfect Others Retail Superstores Online Mail order NeXt IBM , Digital 1997 Primary fuel Power generation Trading Distribution Backward integration to reduce risk
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